Dreaming in Hitchcock Movies

“Dream dream, filling up an idle hour
Fade away, radiate”
– Debbie Harry, Dreaming


I’m one of those persons who are quite fascinated by dreams. From the most ordinary ones to the most extraordinary ones,  I saw them in all their colours. When I can remember my dreams, I write them in a little notebook to make sure I don’t forget them later. Actually, this is also a way to stimulate my subconscious and the more I work on them, the more I can remember them. I sometimes read my dream notebook and I have some fun reading stuff I didn’t remember.

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Dreams inspire art; paintings, songs, and, of course, cinema. So I thought, why not discussing the dreaming world in movies. I cannot talk about ALL the movies with dreams. So, why not focusing on the dreaming world in Hitchcock’s films?!

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Spellbound (1945)

“Good night and sweet dreams… which we’ll analyze at breakfast.” – Dr. Alex Brulov (Michael Chekhov), Spellbound

When one thinks of dreams in classic films, I’m pretty sure the first scene that comes to his or her mind is the one created by Salvador Dalí for Spellbound. Well, when Dali, the master of surrealism, accepts to direct a dream scene, you know it’s going to be a winning result. Dali’s painting themselves seem to be inspired by dreams or, at least by something that mysteriously poped-up of his mind for whatever reasons. I must admit, I didn’t do any dreams where the objects were weird and misshapen like in Dalí’s paintings, but the importance here is the symbolism of this dream.

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In the 40s, psychoanalyse was a subject that was very “en vogue”. With Spellbound, Hitchcock had for desired to direct the first movie on the subject. Like he explained to François Truffaut, he consulted famous psychoanalyst during the making of his film. The Master of Suspense also explained that he had for break the tradition of blurry and confused dreams that we usually see in movies. That’s why he wanted to work with Dalí. This one would create a visually very clear dream with clear and acute traits.

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So, in a movie about psychoanalyze, dreams are of a high importance. If I’m not mistaken, Dali’s sequence originally laste around 20 minutes, but it was cut to only a few. Not to mention that some of Dalí’s ideas were a bit difficult to shot as Hitchcock explained to Truffaut.  In a way, there’s something interesting about that. Have you ever heard that, even if your dreams sometimes seem to last forever, they only last a minute or a few seconds? In Spellbound, JB (Gregory Peck)’s dream is of a central importance since it helps Constance Peterson (Ingrid Bergman) and Professor Brulov (Michael Chekhov) to understand him and to help him regain his memory. It is said that dreams all have a meaning. Well, Spellbound‘s dream sequence is the perfect example of that.

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I feel that, in classic films, you had some of the most weirdly illustrated dreams. Of course, we all remember Spellbound’s dream for these curtains with painted eyes that are cut by a man with a giant pair of scissors. This is maybe the most iconic part of the sequence. Objects also have weird forms and proportions. For example, one can think of this crooked wheel or this giant table where a game of card is being interrupted by a man without a face. My personal favourite part of the dream is when Gregory Peck is running down a slope and followed by a pair of big wings (we only see their shadows). There’s something very beautiful in this shot that fits perfectly the dreaming world. Of course, we learn later in the film what is the meaning of all this.

 

Vertigo (1958)

“Only one is a wanderer; two together are always going somewhere. ” – Madeleine (Kim Novak), Vertigo

The scene designed by Dalí isn’t the only memorable dream sequence from an Hitchcock’s film. In 1958, Scottie Ferguson (James Stewart)’s nightmare had something truly terrifying. The mix between Bernard Herrmann’s score and the flashy colours create a haunting moment. Interestingly, Vertigo was the first film to use computer graphics, these being designed by Saul Bass. Those weren’t only used in the opening titles but also in the nightmare scene. The script doesn’t try to reveal the “meaning” of this dream like it is the case with Spellbound. However, the symbols are clear enough to understand that it reflects a part of Scottie’s life that begins to haunt him more and more.

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Vertigo‘s dream sequence is also the proof that this film used Technicolor to its full potential. I must admit, the first time I saw this scene, I felt slightly uncomfortable, but I think it is meant to be. What particularly frightened me is this moment when Scottie advances toward’s Carolotta’s tomb where a hole has been dug to put a coffin. I was only expecting to see Carolotta’s rotten corpse lying there, but, luckily, there wasn’t anything of the sort. I remember my sister coming in the living room right during this dream sequence and saying “Ah, that’s scary!” before leaving. But once you are more “used to it” you find it somehow fascinating. I love the short moment were Galvin Elster, Carlotta Valdes and Scottie are next to a window and the first two just stare at Scottie with a very cold look. The nightmare scene is also in perfect harmony with the music and, therefore, there’s something very choreographical about it.

 

Rebecca (1940)

“Last night I dreamt I went to Manderley again” – Mrs. DeWinter (Joan Fontaine), Rebecca

It’s with this iconic sentence that Daphné DuMaurier introduced her most acclaimed novel, Rebecca. Of course, Hitchcock had to use it in his Oscar-winning film. “I” De Winter (Joan Fontaine)’s dream evokes the memory she has of Manderley, the place where she used to live with her husband Max DeWinter (Laurence Olivier). In her dream, Manderley is burnt and now a desolate place. This is also a vision of reality and the rest of the film is a long flashback that will help us understand the mystery and the fatal faith of this rich domain.

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This dream scene at the beginning that introduces the film is filmed in a subjective point of view. It is seen through the narrator’s eyes, the second Mrs. DeWinter. Joan Fontaine’s enchanting and smooth voice adds a certain tranquility to the sad vision of the abandoned place. It’s interesting how this dream that is so calm is abruptly interrupted by a crash of waves in the following scene. This sequence wasn’t directed by Dalí, but we still can admire its beautiful black and white cinematography that gives it a vision of poetry.

 

Marnie (1964)

“You Freud, me Jane? “ – Marnie Edgar (Tippi Hedren), Marnie

Just like Spellbound, Marnie has psychoanalysis as a central subject. The main character, Marnie, is a cleptomaniac and also has a phobia of the colour red. Interestingly, in opposition to the previous movies, we actually never see Marnie’s dreams. We only see her dreaming. It is obvious that those are nightmares. To highlight her fear of red, these scenes are filmed with a red flashy lightning which makes the dream even more threatening than it already is. But what is the symbolism or this red that Marnie is so afraid of? The Devil? Violence? Blood? Marnie’s dreams always start with something knocking and the furious first notes of Bernard Herrmann’s score. Marnie constantly evokes her mother in her dreams and it seems that she is associated with some bad memories. Just like Spellbound, these dreams will help us to discover the truth about the title character. However, here the subject of psychoanalyse wasn’t as developed as it was with Spellbound.

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These are, I would say, the essential Hitchcock’s dream scenes. However, one can observe that some of his scenes, although they portrait reality and not a dream, are almost filmed like a dream because of the light, the colours, the blurry image, the way it is shot, etc. A few examples would be the weird trial scene in Dial M for Murder (Margot Wendice is living a real nightmare); the flashback scene in I Confess (which has a very clear and white image); when Margaret Lockwood’s faint in The Lady Vanishes; in Vertigo when Judy comes out of the bathroom metamorphosed into Madeleine, etc. François Truffaut even said to Hitchcock that, for him, many of his films, such as Vertigo and Notorious, looked like filmed dreams.

Dream scenes in movies give the occasion to the film crew to explore a different way to illustrate something. Of course, all dreams are different so, according to each movie director, a dream scene can be very different. We observe that Hitchcock’s dream scenes are mostly nightmare or, in Rebecca‘s case, the vision of something sad. Most of the time, these reflect the past of a character, a trouble hidden in his or her subconscious or a difficult situation.

Which Hitchcock’s dream scene fascinates you the most?

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Source:

– Truffaut, François. Hitchcock/Truffaut. Gallimard. 1993.

 

 

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Spellbound: Fascination

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Spellbound is a movie directed by Alfred Hitchcock and released in 1945.

The first time I watched Spellbound, I realized it was a great movie; the second time, I realized it was a very great movie and the third time (yesterday), I realized it was a masterpiece. I took a long time before seeing it. Why? Because I didn’t really know what to expect. I didn’t know a lot about it because it’s not one of Hitchcock’s most popular films like Rear Window or Psycho, but I had to see it since I want to see every Hitchcock’s films. He is my favourite movie director and, so far, I have seen 41 of his films. Well, I had no regrets about Spellbound: this movie is almost perfect (because nothing is perfect).

Let me first tell you what this movie is about. Constance Peterson, a psychoanalyst, works at Green Manors, a psychiatric institution. Dr. Murchison, the chief of Green Manors is about to retire and to be replaced by Dr. Anthony Edwardes. The young doctor and Constance fell in love with each other but soon, Constance discovers that he is not Anthony Edwardes, but a certain “J.B” who took the place of Edwardes. He is an amnesiac man who also suffers from a guilty complex: he is convinced that he killed the real Dr. Edwardes. Constance, who is deeply in love with him, will help him to find his real identity and discover who really killed Dr. Edwardes.

An unforgettable thing about this movie is certainly the wonderful performance by Ingrid Bergman, one of the greatest actresses of all times. Spellbound was the first of three collaborations between this actress and Alfred Hitchcock. In this film, she has the chance to play a very good person, a wonderful woman full of will and who knows how to think with her heart and not only with her head. Ingrid Bergman is simply radious as Constance Peterson. And how can we forget this beautiful smile of her, especially when she looks at the landscapes during her walk in the country with Dr. Edwardes/ J.B at the beginning of the movie? In fact, Constance Peterson is maybe one of my favourite characters of all-times and Ingrid Bergman was a perfect choice. Gregory Peck also gives an amazing performance in this film. He sometimes overacts, but let’s not forget that it was only his 4th movie. Anyway, he did a great job and his duet with Ingrid Bergman is unforgettable.

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Another memorable thing about this film is certainly the score by Miklós Rózsa. This is probably one of the most beautiful scores of all Hitchcock’s filmography. It is simply so bewitching and it fits perfectly the atmosphere of the film and also the title: Spellbound. This music almost makes the movie looks like a long choreography. It’s magic. Rózsa won the Oscar for Best Music, Scoring of a Dramatic or Comedy Picture in 1946.

Spellbound’s opening credits with the beautiful music score by Miklós Rózsa:

The subject of this movie, the psychoanalysis, is certainly very interesting. We have a similar case in Marnie, but the story is quite different. Not only the subject is fascinating, but also the way it is presented to us. I love to see the evolution of J.B and how Constance helps him to get well. They have to face many hardships, but we always have hope for them. Well, this subject is developed in a great story. It was very well thought. Of course, one of the most famous things about Spellbound is the dream sequence created by the surrealist painter Salvator Dalí. This sequence is visually mesmerizing and portrays the world of dreams with a mysterious charm. My favourite part of this dream is when J.B is running down a slope and the shadow of a big pair of wings is flying over him.

So, these are the main reasons why I love this film. As I said, Spellbound won the Oscar for Best Music. It was also nominated Best Picture, Best Director, Best Actor in a Supporting Role (Michael Chekhov), Best Cinematography (black & white) and Best Effects/Special Effects. Hitchcock’s fans, if you haven’t seen this movie yet, really, it is worth watching.

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